Africa: A Tragic Continent

by | Oct 30, 2014 | Africa, WORLD

Poverty is not a cause but a result of Africa's problems.

Here’s how my Aug. 11, 2003, column began: “Anyone who believes President Bush’s Africa initiative, including sending U.S. troops to Liberia, will amount to more than a hill of beans is whistling Dixie. Maybe it’s overly pessimistic, but most of Africa is a continent without much hope for its people.” More than a decade has passed since that assessment, and little has changed to suggest a more optimistic outlook. Now Ebola threatens the very existence of the West African nations Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. Moreover, the deadly disease is likely to spread to neighboring nations.

Each year, The Wall Street Journal and The Heritage Foundation publish an “Index of Economic Freedom,” which measures economic liberty around the world. Mauritius is the only one of the 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa to rank among the 10 freest economies in the world. Botswana is the second-freest African country, followed by Cape Verde. South Africa used to be near the top but has since declined. Of the other sub-Saharan countries, 11 are rated as “repressed” and 26 are “mostly unfree.” Eight of the world’s 20 least free economies are in Africa’s sub-Saharan region.

Poverty is not a cause but a result of Africa’s problems. What African countries need the West cannot provide. They need personal liberty. That means a political system in which there are guarantees of private property rights, free markets, honest government and the rule of law. Africa’s poverty is, for the most part, self-inflicted. Some people might disagree because their college professors taught them that the legacy of colonialism explains Third World poverty. That’s nonsense. Canada was a colony. So were Australia, New Zealand and Hong Kong. In fact, the richest country in the world, the United States, was once a colony. By contrast, Third World countries such as Ethiopia, Liberia, Nepal and Bhutan were never colonies, yet they are home to some of the world’s poorest people.

There’s no complete explanation for why some countries are affluent while others are poor, but there are some leads. Rank countries according to whether they are closer to being a free market economy or whether they’re closer to having a socialist or planned economy. Then rank countries by per capita income. Doing so, we will find a general, though not perfect, pattern whereby those having a larger measure of economic freedom find their citizens enjoying a higher standard of living. Also, if we ranked countries according to how Freedom House or Amnesty International rates human rights protections, we’d find that citizens of freer market economies enjoy a greater measure of human rights protections. You can bet the rent money that the correlation among free markets, wealth and human rights protections is not coincidental.

With but few exceptions, most African countries are worse off now than they were during colonialism, both in terms of standard of living and in terms of human rights protections. Once a food-exporting country, Zimbabwe recently stood near the brink of starvation. Sierra Leone is rich in minerals — especially diamonds — has highly fertile land and is the best port site in West Africa, but it has declined into a state of utter despair. Africa is the world’s most natural-resources-rich continent. It has 50 percent of the world’s gold, most of the world’s diamonds and chromium, 90 percent of the cobalt, 40 percent of the world’s potential hydroelectric power, 65 percent of the manganese, and millions of acres of untilled farmland, as well as other natural resources. Before independence, every African country was self-sufficient in food production; today many depend on imports, and others stand at the brink of famine.

Though there’s a strong case for us to help with the Ebola crisis, the worst thing Westerners could do to Africa would be to send more foreign aid. Foreign aid provides the financial resources that enable Africa’s grossly corrupt and incompetent regimes to buy military equipment, pay off cronies and continue to oppress their people. It also provides resources for the leaders to live lavishly and set up “retirement” accounts in foreign banks.

Walter E. Williams is a professor of economics at George Mason University. In 1980, he joined the faculty of George Mason University in Fairfax, Va., and is currently the John M. Olin Distinguished Professor of Economics. He is also the author of Race and Economics: How Much Can Be Blamed on Discrimination? and Up from the Projects: An Autobiography. Williams participates in many debates and conferences, is a frequent public speaker and often gives testimony before both houses of Congress. This editorial was made available through Creator's Syndicate.


  1. Sowell is absolutely correct. Western foreign aid to these countries simply perpetuates the poverty and pitiable standards of living, and staves off the consequences of being on foreign aid “welfare,” just as our domestic welfare system perpetuates poverty, illiteracy and crime in this country, and also encourages corruption and a citizenry that becomes schooled in “gaming” the system.

  2. This is written by Walter Williams, not Thomas Sowell.

    The rest of your post is correct though

  3. Just thinking out loud: I wonder if there would be any place for a new series of pioneer columns into Africa. Perhaps some adventurous young people from Western countries to move to and settle down in Africa for the long term. A large population of Western settlers in an African country would never tolerate the corruption and lack of freedom that currently prevail in Africa. Neither would they tolerate the lack of material comforts to which they are accustomed, and they will have the money to make investment in stable infrastructure and material values worthwhile.
    What we would have to do as people, however, is not to be afraid of certain demographics that will upset many people on the Left, namely, at least for the first generation or two, there will be a largely white minority class of people with more money and property. As long as this is not solidified by law (like it once was in South Africa) and that no artificial obstacles to social mobility are put in place, I don’t think this has to be a problem. An increasing degree of freedom and the subsequent material progress can become an organic local phenomenon. Just a thought.

  4. They all look the same to Cline.

  5. If America would just become libertarian the problems with the rest of the world would work themselves out.

Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

Voice of Capitalism

Our weekly email newsletter.

We respect your privacy. Unsubscribe anytime.

Pin It on Pinterest